合作&投诉微信:tousuhezuo客服微信: topwangke01

X

essay代写原创论文案例-British Imperialism

文章类型:essay 发布时间:2020-07-29

英帝国主义是一个重要的历史,它影响了整个世界的进程。 帝国主义虽然结束了,但如今对我们来说仍然是必要和有益的。 它如何处理合理性问题? 它如何使英国成为世界上的大国? 本文将讨论英帝国主义的正当性问题,并从历史背景,建立的巨大商业联系,伴随英帝国主义进行的现代化及其对英国带来的文化影响等方面,说明英国如何成为世界上的主要力量。 世界。
British imperialism is an important history, that influenced the whole world process. Although the imperialism is ended, it is necessary and helpful for us to value it nowadays. How can it deal with the problem of justification? How it made British became a major power in the world? This essay will discuss the problem of justification of British imperialism and explains how the British could became the main power in the world from its historical background, the big commercial connection it built, the modernization that accompanied British imperialism and the cultural influence it brought to the world. 
首先,作为重要进步的工业革命导致了英国经济的大幅增长,并为扩大英帝国主义提供了可能。

在工业革命期间,英国人民的生活水平急剧上升。当时,英国成为工厂的中心,向世界供应工业产品,从而获得大笔收入。一方面,工业革命的迅速发展促进了英国的经济发展,另一方面也促进了英国工业的发展。结果,它提高了英国公民的就业率并解决了许多社会问题。
 “ 1900年,大英帝国仍然是世界贸易流通的枢纽,因此商业要素不容忽视”(第43页)。但是,这种对世界的商业影响与英国的工业革命息息相关,这使得制造和批量生产的成本降低成为可能。正如保罗·巴尔罗赫(Paul Balroch)所指出的,在工业化国家与非工业化国家之间存在着“打哈欠的鸿沟”(p44)。例如,当欧洲的收入在1800年至1913年之间增长超过200%时,非洲仅增长9%,亚洲仅增长1%。工业革命使社会以新技术和巨大利润迅速发展。因此,许多原材料和半成品进入了英国。经济和社会的飞速发展使英帝国主义的扩张成为可能。
First, the industrial revolution as an important progress led to a substantial increase in the British economy and made it possible for the expansion of British imperialism.
During the Industrial Revolution, the British people's living standards rose sharply. At that time, Britain became the center of factories, supplying the world with industrial products, so as to obtain their big income. On the one hand, the rapid progress of the industrial revolution has boosted the economic development of Britain, and on the other hand it has also promoted the development of British industry. As a result, it has increased the employment rate of British citizens and solved many social problems.
  “In 1900, the British Empire was still the hub in the circulation of world trade and therefore the commercial element cannot be ignored” (p43). However, this commercial influence on the world deeply related with the Industrial Revolution in Britain, which made it possible the low cost of manufacturing and mass production. As Paul Balroch points out, there is a “yawning chasm” (p44) between the industrialized states and the non-industrialized states. For example, when the income in Europe rose more than 200 percent between 1800 and 1913, it only rose 9 percent in Africa and 1 percent in Asia. The industrial revolution makes the society grown rapidly, with new techniques and great profit. Thanks to this, lots of raw materials and semi-finished product go into Britain. This rapid growth of economy and society made it possible for the expansion of British imperialism. 
第二个重要问题是在英帝国主义基础上建立的商业联系。
如前所述,工业革命为英国在世界贸易中发挥重要作用提供了有利的环境。英国帝国主义曾经是连接许多国家的商业活动的链条,例如印度,东南亚和中国。正如鲁宾逊和加拉格尔指出的那样,“非正式帝国”(p45)是在19世纪中叶,当时大英帝国继续通过贸易扩大和统治世界,但没有吞并。例如,“争夺非洲”案是出于保护贸易路线的原因而发生的。 “他们得出的结论是,英国政府曾试图在非正式控制下建立贸易;如有必要,请按规则进行交易”(第45页)。
在此之前,鸦片战争已经在1830年代发生。在英国看来,这场战争并不是出于占领中国土地的理由,而是为了打开中国的大门并促进那里的贸易。英国将目标对准了靠近珠江口的香港。当时,人少,资源匮乏,但英国可以在那里建立据点。英国的全球战略是尽可能少地占领,但控制一些关键的贸易场所。除香港外,还有其他地方,例如直布罗陀,埃及和新加坡。英国拥有大量的商品和原材料市场。在殖民化过程中,英国利用殖民地的资源不断改善其国家发展并为成为世界霸主作出贡献。
在这一交易过程中,我们需要注意的一件事是,英国的帝国政策是相当被动和保守的。对于英国帝国主义者而言,他们更加关注自己在全球范围内的战略作用,并试图减少外界的影响,例如公众和游说者的意见。所有关键决策均应由“官方思维”做出(p42)。
Second important issue is the commercial connection built under the British imperialism.
As mentioned before, the Industrial Revolution provided a favorable environment for British to play an important role in the world trade. The British Imperialism was once a chain that connected many countries’ commercial activities, such as India, South-East Asia and China. As Robinson and Gallagher pointed out, the “informal Empire” (p45), is in the middle of nineteenth century when British Empire continued to expand and dominate the world through trade, but without annexation. For example, the case of “scramble for Africa”, was happened out of the reason to protect trade routes. “They concluded that the British government had sought to establish trade with informal control if possible; trade with rule if necessary” (p45).
Before that, the Opium War already happened in the 1830s. In Britain's view, this war was not out of the reason to occupy China's land, but to open China's door and promote the trade there. The British targeted Hong Kong, which was close to the Pearl River estuary. At that time, there were few people and no resources, but Britain could establish a stronghold there. Britain's global strategy is to occupy as little as possible, but control some key places for trading. In addition to Hong Kong, there are also other places such as Gibraltar, Egypt and Singapore. Britain has a vast market for commodities and raw materials. In the process of colonization, Britain used the resources of the colony to continuously improve its national development and contribute to becoming a world hegemony.
In this trading process, one thing we need to notice is that, the British imperial policy is quite reactive and conservative. For the British Imperialists, they concerned more about their strategic role worldwide and tried to decrease the effects from external world, such as the opinion from public and the lobbyists.  All the key decisions should be made by “official mind” (p42).
第三,伴随着英国帝国主义的现代化。
以英国对印度的殖民统治为例。英国统治者指的是1858年至1947年英国对印度次大陆的殖民统治。人们对帝国主义如何促进印度的现代化有意见。它涉及许多不同的社会方面,例如教育的文化化。废除奴隶制和奴隶制。 “英国人认为,他们通过废除奴隶制,奴役和暴民来推行现代化,他们对宣教工作有坚定的信念,使他们得以维持,他们看到了在教育英语化以及印度,东南亚和中东地区的开放中受益。中国贸易”(第36页)。
完全从英国的角度出发,却无视当地社会是一个非常有力的理由。我认为,英国帝国主义可能确实将现代化作为一种​​历史现象带给了其他国家,但这不是出于他们的缘故,也不是帝国主义的真正原因。此外,很难说这种现代化是好是坏,因为在这个过程中,本土文化可能会被判断,忽视和抛弃。
Thirdly, the modernization that accompanied the British Imperialism.
Take the example of British colonial rule over India. The British Raj refers to the British colonial rule of the Indian Subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. There are opinions about how the imperialism contributed to the modernization of India. It related with many different social aspects, for instance, the anglicizations of education. the abolishment of slavery and suttee. “The British believed they were introducing modernization by the abolition of slavery, suttee and thuggee, they were sustained by a strong faith in missionary work and they saw benefits in the Anglicisation of education and in the opening up of Indian, South-East Asian and Chinese trade” (p36).
It is a very strong justification that totally from the point of view of British, but ignore the local societies. In my opinion, the British Imperialism might really brought modernization to other countries as a history phenomenon, but it is not for their sake and it is neither the true reason of imperialism.  In addition, it is hard to say this kind of modernization is good or not, because in this process, the native culture might be judged, ignored and abandoned. 
最后但并非最不重要的一点是,由于殖民化而产生的文化影响和社会认同也促进了英国在世界上的力量。
“毫无疑问,文化是帝国主义景观的一个特征,远远超出了语言和权力的狭窄视野”(p204)。严格地说,帝国主义不仅是一种消极现象,而且具有积极意义。它塑造了英国精神,并已成为其社会和民族认同的一部分。帝国的概念不仅与贸易和征服有关,而且与“冒险,骑士义务和牺牲”有关(p204)。
此外,大量的人口流动和移民使英国文化传播到世界许多地方。香港人仍然像英国人一样有很多习惯,例如,他们更喜欢英国风味的早餐,并且英语和广东话混合在一​​起。另一方面,英国的影响力也体现在殖民地地区文化消费品的口味上,例如中国瓷器,中东地毯和南亚茶,这也有助于当地文化的繁荣。
总之,英国帝国主义立足于英国工业革命的历史背景,在世界范围内建立了巨大的贸易链,为英国带来了丰厚的利润。出于正当的理由,它与当地社会的现代化有关,也有利于全球文化交流。所有这些因素,使得英国在一定时期内成为世界上的大国。
Last but not least, the cultural influence and social identity due to the colonization also contributes to the power of Britain in the world.
“Culture is undoubtedly a feature of the imperialist landscape that stretches far beyond the narrow horizons of language and power” (p204). Critically speaking, Imperialism is not only a negative phenomenon, it has some positive meaning. It shaped the British spirits and has become part of their social and national identity. The concept of Empire is not only related with trade and conquer, but also relates with “adventure, chivalric duty and sacrifice” (p204).
Furthermore, the big population mobility and migration makes the British culture spread to many parts of the world. The people in Hong Kong still have a lot of habit like British, for example, they prefer breakfast with some British style, and they speak in a way mixed English with Cantonese. On the other hand, the influence of Britain also shows in the taste for cultural consumables from the colonized area, such as the Chinese porcelain, Middle East rugs, and South Asia tea, which helps the prosperous of the local culture as well.
In conclusion, British Imperialism based on the history background of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, and it created huge trade chain all over the world, which brought Britain lots of profit. For the justification, it related with the modernization of the local societies, and also beneficial for the global cultural exchanges. All these elements, made British became a major power in the world in a certain period of history. 

关键词:网课代修;essay代写;网课代考