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代写paper原创案例

文章类型:paper 发布时间:2020-08-05

问题1:谁是英国广播公司的主要所有者?这是否对委托人主要问题或委托代理人问题有更多贡献?

1.BBC属于泰国的贵族家庭。
而且,他们没有雇用专业经理来经营银行,而是选择了其中的某人来经营银行。由于没有有效,适当的法规和监督来约束管理层和主要股东的不当行为,因此他们向亲戚,朋友,政客提供了不合理的贷款,以换取爱,尊重,金钱和权力。但是,这些贷款被认为是有风险的贷款。
 
2,由于英国广播公司是由贵族家庭经营的,因此引起了主要原则问题。
当银行高管向不合资格的借款人进行风险相关的贷款时,这些借款人比自己预期的违约机会要大的多,他们会损害股东的利益。在经济学上,这称为委托代理问题,即控制公司的管理层可能会为了自己的利益而使股东蒙受损失。
当大股东向其亲戚,自己的公司和政界人士提供贷款而没有常规检查他们是否能够偿还贷款时,小股东的利益也受到损害。这就是所谓的主要原理问题。也就是说,当大股东能够干预公司的运营时,小股东的利益可能会受到损害,因为大股东可能会出于自身利益这样做。例如,一家拥有谷物公司的啤酒生产商的主要股东可能会为在他自己的公司中购买的谷物原料设定价格,谷物是啤酒的原料。
在这种情况下,英国广播公司是由贵族家庭拥有的事实,由于以下原因,导致更多的是主要原则问题。首先,管理层本身是所有者,在一定程度上代表了股东的利益。其次,大股东有权选择管理层,而小股东的建议并不重要,因为监管不力,大股东在公司运营方面有更多发言权。

Question 1: Who was the main owner of BBC? Does this contribute more to principal-principal problems or more to principal-agent problem?

1. BBC belonged to aristocratic families of Thailand.
And they, instead of hiring a professional manager to run the bank, selected someone in them to operate it. As there was no effective and proper regulation and supervision to constrain misbehaviors of the management and major stockholders, they made unreasonable loans to relatives, friends, politicians in exchange for love, respect, money and power. However, such loans were considered to be risky loans.
 
2. Since BBC was run by aristocratic families, principal-principal problems were caused.
When the executives of the bank made risky related lending to unqualified borrowers who had greater chance than expected to default the loans for their own benefits, benefits of stockholders were hurt. And in economics, this is called principal-agent problem, namely, the management who controls the company might cause loss to stockholders for their own benefit.
When major stockholders made loans to their relatives, their own companies and politicians without surveying as routine whether they were able to repay it, minor stockholders’ interests were hurt as well. And this is called principal-principal problem. That is, when major stockholders are able to intervene the operations of a company, minor stockholders’ interests might be harmed because major ones possibly do so for their own benefits. For example, a major stockholder of a beer producer who owns a grain firm might set a price for grains purchased at his own firm, which are raw materials of beer.
In this case, the fact that BBC was owned by aristocratic families led more to principal-principal problem for the following reasons. Firstly, the management itself was the owner, and it represented interests of stockholders to some degree. Secondly, major stockholders had great power to choose the management and minor stockholders’ advice was not important because of poor supervision, major stockholders had more voice in corporate operations. 

问题2:BBC经历过哪种类型的问题?
正如第一段所述,在1996年,英国广播公司被发现拥有大量的不良贷款和大量的呆账和可疑债务。 由于不良贷款和无法收回的债务,BBC无法偿还储户的钱。 它面临破产的问题。

Question 2: What type of the problem did BBC experience?

In 1996, BBC was found, as is mentioned in the first paragraph, to have a great amount of nonperforming loans and a large number of bad and doubtful debts. With the nonperforming loans and uncollectible debts, BBC was not able to pay depositors’ money back. And it was faced with the problem of insolvency.

问题3:谁来承担BBC管理不善的代价?
纳税人在最后支付了价格。
由于破产,财政部接管了英国广播公司,并任命了一个由五人组成的委员会来管理该银行(Sherer,1996)。 此外,还提出了一项救助计划,并希望中央银行为其不良贷款提供资金,以避免拥挤和造成更严重的后果。 根据政府的救助计划,实际上是最后由纳税人支付了价格。 考虑到东南亚后来的金融衰退部分是由于这一原因造成的,该国和纳税人支付的费用远远超过了救助计划。

Question 3: Who bore the costs of BBC’s mismanagement?

Taxpayers paid the price at the end.
As a result of its insolvency, Finance Ministry took over BBC and appointed a five-member committee to run the bank (Sherer, 1996). Besides, a bailout plan was proposed, and central bank was expected to fund its bad loans to just to avoid crowding out and more severe consequences. With the bailout plan of the government, it was actually the taxpayers that paid the price at the end. Considering that financial recession later in Southeast Asia was caused partly because of it, the country and the taxpayers paid much more than the bailout.

Reference

Sherer, P. (1996). Thailand Official Details Loans of Bangkok Bank of Commerce. Retrieved 4 February 2020, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB847392946294481000

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