答：这是一个仓促的概括，因为它的样本量很小。鲍勃根据他的经验判断所有梨都是酸的（样本量很小）。1. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Bob said: "I ate a pear today. It was sour! All pears are sour!"
Answer: This is a hasty generalization because it is a small sample size. Bob judges all pears are sour on the basis of his experience (sample size is very small).
答案：该示例犯了错误的类比谬误。错误的类比谬论假定，因为两件事在一个或多个方面是相似的，所以它们在某些方面必然是相似的。该示例假定咖啡和酒精的功能相同，因为它们都是液体。2. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Coffee makes Bob energetic.
Both coffee and alcohol are liquids. Alcohol can make Bob energetic, too.
Answer: The example commits a faulty analogy fallacy. Faulty analogy fallacy assumes that because two things are alike in one or more respects, they are necessarily alike in some other respect. The example assumes that coffee and alcohol are the same in function because they are both liquids.
答：音素。词素是演绎论证，缺少一个或多个部分，这是最常见的演绎论证。3. Fill in the blank: _______ is deductive arguments that are missing one or more parts.
Answer: Enthymemes. Enthymemes are deductive arguments that are missing one or more parts, which are the most commonly encountered deductive arguments.
答案：这是一个非必不可少的论点。假设鲍勃生活在马尔代夫是一个谬论，因为这使人们假设生活在马尔代夫的人是唯一热爱阳光的人。结论不符合前提。4. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
People who live in Maldive love the sunshine.
Bob loves sunshine.
Bob lives in Maldive.
Answer: This is a non-sequitur argument. It is a fallacy to assume that Bob lives in Maldive because that is making the assumption that people who live in Maldive are the only people who love the sunshine. The conclusion does not follow the premises.
答：基本的演绎论点称为三段论。三段论是一种逻辑论证，其中的结论是根据前提（范畴命题）推论得出的。三段论定律采用两个条件陈述，并通过将一个陈述的假设与另一个陈述的结论相结合来形成结论。三段论包括三个部分：主要前提，次要前提和结论。它构成了一个基本的演绎论点。5. What is a Syllogism? Explain.
Answer: The basic deductive arguments are called Syllogisms. A syllogism is a kind of logical argument in which the conclusion is inferred from the premises (categorical propositions). The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another. A Syllogism contains three parts: the Major Premise, the Minor Premise, and the conclusion. It constitutes a basic deductive argument.
答：谬论是红色鲱鱼，它把无关紧要的材料引入了论点。这位政治家转移了难民的主要议题，并将对话转向外交政策，这是他更加准备和舒适地谈论的话题。6. Read the following conversation. What is the fallacy in the conversation?
Journalists: "What would you do about the refugees?"
Politician: "It is a very good question. We understand that the international society has been closely focused on this matter. We are also very care about the problem. We will make efforts on it just like we did on our trade policy – we made some great changes there too!"
Answer: The fallacy is red herring, which introduces irrelevant material into an argument. The politician deflects the main issue of refugees and shifts the conversation towards foreign policy, which is a topic that he is more prepared and comfortable talking about.
答：错。可靠性是对命题真理的置信度。可靠的论据是被认为足以相信或采取行动的论据。概化的可靠性取决于样本大小和样本宽度。假设的可靠性取决于证据量。可靠性不一定等于真理。7. True or False: Reliability equals truth.
Answer: False. Reliability is the degree of confidence that is placed in the truth of a proposition. A reliable argument is one that is considered to be sufficiently true to believe or act upon. The Reliability of a Generalization depends on the Sample Size and Breadth of the sample. The Reliability of a Hypothesis depends on the amount of evidence. Reliability does not necessarily equal truth.
答案：论点广告Hominem通过攻击某人而非陈述来拒绝或驳回该人的陈述。例如，鲍勃每年夏天去打猎。因此，他不可能支持枪支管制。狩猎被用作负面特征。该论点通过攻击鲍勃的个人特征得出结论。甚至鲍勃每年夏天都会去狩猎，他仍然可以支持各种枪支管制立法。8. What is Argumentum ad Hominem? Give an example.
Answer: Argumentum ad Hominem rejects or dismisses another person's statement by attacking the person rather than the statement. For example, Bob goes hunting every summer. Therefore, he cannot possibly support gun control. Hunting is used as a negative characteristic. The argument makes the conclusion by attacking Bob's personal characteristics. Even Bob goes hunting every summer, and he could still support various gun control legislation.
答：有效性。有效性是演绎三段论真理的必要条件，但不是充分条件。有效性需要可靠的前提。结论是基于论证的有效性而得出的。如果参数无效，那么它是不可靠的，因此结论是错误的。9. Fill in the blank: Deductive arguments are generally evaluated in terms of their _______ and soundness.
Answer: Validity. Validity is a necessary condition for the truth of a deductive syllogism but is not a sufficient condition. Validity requires reliable premises. The conclusion is based upon and forced from the validity of the argument. If the argument is not valid, then it is not reliable, so the conclusion is false.
答：这是一个全有或全无谬误的例子。假定“喜欢摇滚音乐”和“讨厌摇滚音乐”是互斥和详尽的。但是，有些人可能对摇滚音乐保持中立，这应该属于第三类。10. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Everyone likes or hates rock music.
Answer: It is an example of all or nothing fallacy. It assumes that "like rock music" and "hate rock music" are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. However, some people can be neutral to rock music, which should belong to a third category.