从上面对加拿大的三种主要政治思想的详细分析中可以看出，这三个政党对加拿大各部门，特别是在经济和国家干预领域，持有不同的政治观点。实际上，正是保守党和自由党对经济问题的不同政治观点导致了加拿大政治局势的变化。Canada is a multi-cultural federal country. Since its establishment, Canada has formed its own unique political system. In terms of the political parties and their governance, three major political parties, namely the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party, and the New Democratic Party, have been formed, in which the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party take turns in governing. This article focuses on the differences in ideology and policy among the three political parties, as well as how these differences have been related to the changes of the role of the state in Canada's political climate caused by the victory of the Liberal Party in 2015.
Canada's ideology is divided into three main groups. The first is relatively neutral liberalism, which pursues the freedom and equality of individualism. The Liberal Party, the current ruling party, is the representative party of liberalism. According to their political policy, the Liberal Party believes that the state has a positive effect on the free development of their people and that the state should safeguard the interests and rights of all citizens and cultures existing in Canada (Clarkson et al., 2012). According to the lecture on liberalism, the government should respect the private sector, but it also needs to promote the overall interests of society through state intervention when necessary.
The second stream is the left-wing social democracy which pursues the freedom and equality of collectivism and emphasizes the intervention and function of the state. The representative party of social democracy in Canada is the New Democratic Party. From the perspective of the party's policy, it is clear that they support the mixed economy and believe that the public sector should regulate the private sector and directly control economic activities when necessary (“New Democratic Party,” n.d, para.1).
The third main ideology is right-wing conservatism. Conservatism in Canada is divided into “traditional” conservatism and progressive conservatism. The former advocates reducing the state's restraint on individuals, minimizing state intervention, opposing radical changes in government and social system and pursuing the economic framework of the free market. It holds that the government should not interfere in the operation of the market at will, but let the capital market decide the distribution of social wealth and power spontaneously, advocating individualism, and holding that inequality among human beings is natural (Christian, 2006). Progressive conservatism emphasizes the parallelism of collective value and individualism and attaches importance to the order, tradition and stability of provincial cooperation. The former representative party of progressive conservatism was the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, but in 2003, “it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative Party of Canada” (“Progressive Conservative Party of Canada,” n.d, para.3).
From the above-detailed analysis for three major political ideologies in Canada, it is evident that these three parties have held divergent political views toward various sectors of the country, especially in the field of economics and state intervention. In fact, it is the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party's different political views on economic issues that have led to the change of political situation in Canada.
在内部事务和经济方面，自由党在不过度强调财政平衡的情况下，将保守党的传统减税市场经济模式改为其“干预主义”经济政策。同时，他们还增加了基础设施建设和公共财政投资，旨在加强中产阶级。在社会政策方面，自由党开始关注环境保护和气候变化，并在内阁设立了新的“环境与气候变化部长”以减少温室气体排放（Ji，2016）。自2015年以来，人们可以看到，自由党放松了移民管制，重视土著居民的利益，增加了对土著教育和基础设施建设的投资，并支持堕胎和大麻合法化。因此，很明显，在自由党的领导下，当前的加拿大政治气氛处于左翼，侧重于重申国家在经济领域和日常基础设施中的作用。On October 19, 2015, Canada held the 42nd federal parliamentary elections, in which the Conservative Party was replaced by the Liberal Party, and the transfer of political power finally reappeared in Canada nine years later. The Liberal Party succeeded in forming a majority government with more than 170 seats in the House of Commons; the Conservative Party lost 100 seats and formally became the opposition; the New Democratic Party dropped to the third place (Ives, 2015).
During the election, the economy had become the central factor of debate. In the election, the Conservative Party boasted its leadership in Canada's successful response to the 2008 global financial crisis, saying that the Liberal Party and the New Democratic Party would bring disaster to the Canadian economy (Ives, 2015). In fact, the Canadian banking system is well known for its high immunity to foreign financial crises, and the rapid improvement of the Canadian economy is largely due to high international oil prices (Ji, 2016). In recent years, the development of Canada's high-tech industry is also lacking. Especially since the second half of 2014, the weak recovery of the world economy and the sharp drop in international oil prices and other commodity prices have exposed the structural drawbacks of the Canadian economy. In the first half of 2015, the economy has fallen into a technical recession. The Conservative government has done little and has always emphasized the implementation of a balanced budget. On the contrary, the Liberal Party has proposed that the tax rate should be increased from 29% to 33% for the high-income class with an annual income of over 200,000 Canadian dollars, while the tax rate for the middle class should be reduced from 22% to 20.5% (Ji, 2016). Especially at the climax of the general election, in view of the current economic downturn in Canada, the Liberal Party has boldly and decisively proposed the implementation of a deficit of 10 billion Canadian dollars annually for the next three years and the investment of 125 billion Canadian dollars in infrastructure construction in the next 10 years (Ives, 2015). Stimulate growth to stimulate consumption. This election can be said that Canadian voters deny the conservative government's economic policy and affirm the liberal party's economic policy.
In terms of internal affairs and economy, the Liberal Party has changed the Conservative Party’s traditional market economic model of tax reduction to their "interventionist" economic policy without overemphasizing fiscal balance. At the same time, they also increased infrastructure construction and public financial investment, aiming to strengthen the middle class. Regarding social policy, the Liberal Party began paying attention to environmental protection and climate change and set up a new post of "Minister of Environment and Climate Change" in the Cabinet to reduce greenhouse climate emissions (Ji, 2016). Since 2015, people can see that the Liberal Party has relaxed immigration control, attached importance to the interests of aborigines, increased investment in Aboriginal education and infrastructure construction and supported the legalization of abortion and cannabis. Therefore, it is evident that under the governance of the Liberal Party, the current Canadian political climate is on the left-wing, focusing on reiterating the role of the state in the economic field and the daily infrastructure.
Clarkson, S., & Azzi, S., & Mccall, C. (2012, January 17). Liberal Party. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/liberal-party.
Christian, W. (2006, February 6). Conservatism. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/conservatism
Ives, A. (2015). The Canadian general election of 2015: The Liberal victory marks a swing back to the center in Canadian politics. IdeAs Idées d’Amériques, (6), Retrieved from http://journals.openedition.org/ideas/1253.
Ji, L. (2016). The trend of political characteristics and future policy of Canadian political parties after the general election of 2015. Reforms and Opening, (3). DOI 10.16653/j.cnki.32-1034/f.2016.06.032
The editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.) New Democratic Party. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/New-Democratic-Party-political-party
The editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.) Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Progressive-Conservative-Party-of-Canada