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代写essay案例-Critical review of the research study on key aspects of gradu

文章类型:essay 发布时间:2020-01-13

赵德成,马小荣和乔善彬在《教育评价研究》杂志上发表的文章“评估研究生课程时应评估哪些方面:基于学生访谈的分析”,讨论了研究生应注意哪些问题。研究生课程评估的关键指标以及研究生课程具有什么样的特征,都可以被认为是优秀的。
 
通过阅读本文,可以认为本文是一篇不错的研究论文,它得到两个主要方面的支持。首先,本文的结构清晰且设置合理。从抽象部分到讨论与限制部分,本文的内容都是一致且有益的。其次,本文的作者没有谈论他们的观点和推测,而是试图通过定量方法基于有效数据得出结论。尽管研究方法的设计和实施仍存在一些局限性,但研究结果仍然有效,并为课程评估领域提供了新的有用的见解,符合本文的目的。这项研究的主要目的是使用定性方法,从学生的角度出发,从目标,内容设计,教学方法,学习评估和效果五个方面来探讨研究生课程评估的重要特征,并提供有助于改进研究生课程设计和评估过程的证据和见解。
 
在本文中,引言和方法部分对实现其目的做出了很好的贡献。本文的绪论部分由背景知识,相关文献综述和研究问题三个部分组成。从相关政府政策的背景信息以及近十年来中国高等教育的学生数量快速增长开始。解释了为什么进行出色的研究生课程评估的研究如此重要的原因。这为该研究目的提供了总体动力。
 
使本文的陈述清晰易懂的要点之一是,其研究目的从文献综述来看非常合乎逻辑。在开始研究之前,借助于对相关文献的彻底回顾,作者介绍了课程评价的定义,以使读者有一个基本的了解。然后,针对当前中国研究生课程评价体系存在的问题,尤其是其中的原因之一,决定本研究的主要内容为考虑研究生的思想(Pan,2014)。此外,作者指出了课程评价领域的研究空白,即从学生的角度出发,缺乏关于研究生课程评价特征的任何实证研究。因此,提出并探讨了三个研究问题。他们是什么一门优秀的研究生课程?有什么特点?您认为研究生课程评估应涉及什么?为什么? (Zhao,Ma&Qiao,2017,第52页)。他们每个人不仅证实了研究目的,而且还有助于确定合适的研究方法并形成面试问题。
 
而且,本文的“方法”部分对研究设计进行了简单明了的解释,其内容丰富,可以被其他研究人员评估以验证研究结果的可信度。通过回顾本文的逻辑结构,它的研究设计也可以认为与它的目的一致,其中包括探索性内容。没有任何其他类似的研究,使用半结构化访谈的方法对于收集学生参与者关于研究生课程及其评估的新见解以及理解他们的态度和观点的原因非常有用。此外,本研究的整个设计旨在帮助作者达到收集证据的目的,以支持他们的发现并为研究生课程设计提供建议,同时也有助于扩展其评估的知识数据库。抽样和数据分析的方法以及访谈的内容均经过选择,旨在获得更有效的结果。
 
根据对30名研究生院系学习成绩优异的学生进行访谈所得的数据,发现总体上讲,学生在课程评价中更重要和更重视的内容包括课程目标,课程内容五个方面。 ,教学方法,学习评估方法和课程效果。
The journal article “What aspects should be evaluated when evaluating graduate curriculum: Analysis based on student interview” by Decheng Zhao, Xiaorong Ma, and Shanbin Qiao that published in the magazine Studies in Educational Evaluation discussed the research of what would graduate students pay attention in terms of the key indicators of graduate curriculum evaluation and what kind of characteristic the graduate curriculum has can be considered as excellent. 
 
Through reviewing this article, this article can be considered as a good research paper and it is supported by two main points. First, the structure of this paper was clear and well set. From the abstract part to the discussion and limitation part, the contents of this article were all consistent and informative. Second, instead of talking about their opinions and speculations, the authors of this article were trying to draw conclusions based on valid data through quantitative approaches. Even though there are still some limitations regards to the research approach design and conduction, the findings are still valid and provide the field of curriculum evaluation with new and useful insights, which meets the aims of this article. The main purpose of this study was to use qualitative approaches to explore the important characteristics of graduate curriculum evaluation from students’ point of view regards to five main aspects, including objective, content design, teaching approach, learning evaluation and effects, along with providing the evidence and insights contributing to the improvement of the graduate curriculum design and evaluation process.
 
And in this article, the sections of introduction and methods contributed well to address its purpose. The section of introduction part of this article was made up with three parts, which were background information, related literature review and research questions. Start from the background information of related government policies and the rapid increase of student numbers for high education in China in the last decade. The reason for why researching what makes an excellent graduate curriculum evaluation was so important was explained. And this provides general motivation for this research purpose.
 
One of the points that make the statement of this article clear and easy to understand is that its research aim followed quite logically from the literature review. With the help of a thorough review of relevant literature before commencing their study, the authors introduced the definitions of curriculum evaluation to give readers a basic understanding. Then by addressing the problems of the current graduate curriculum evaluation system in China and particularly one of the reasons for that, the main content of this study was decided as adding graduate students’ thoughts into consideration (Pan, 2014). Also, the authors pointed out the research gap in the area of curriculum evaluation, which was lack of any empirical studies about characteristics of graduate curriculum evaluation from students’ perspective. Therefore, three research questions were proposed and explored. They are what is an excellent graduate curriculum? What are its characteristics? What do you think the graduate curriculum evaluation should involve and why? (Zhao, Ma & Qiao, 2017, p. 52). And each of them not only corroborates with the research purpose, but also helps to decide the appropriate research method and form the interview questions.

What’s more, the section of Methods in this article gave a straightforward and plainly explanation of its research design, which was so informative that this it can be evaluated by other researchers to verify the credibility of the findings. By reviewing the logical structure of this paper, its research design can also be considered as consistent with its purpose which included an exploratory element. Without any other similar researches, the method of using semi-structured interviews is quite useful to gather new insights from the student participants about the graduate curriculum and its evaluation, along with understanding the reasons for their attitudes and opinions. Additionally, the whole design of this study was to help authors to reach their purpose of gather evidence to support their findings and make suggestions to the graduate curriculum design, while also contributing to extending the knowledge database of its evaluation. The methods of sampling and data analysis, as well as the contents of the interviews were all selected and designed to get more valid results.
 
Based on the data collected through interviews with 30 students who had excellent academic performance in graduate departments, it was found out that in general, what are more important and valued by student in the curriculum evaluation involved five main aspects, including curriculum objective, curriculum content, teaching approach, learning evaluation method, and curriculum effect. 

主要发现总结如下。首先,研究生更喜欢以就业为导向的课程,以便为将来的工作和长期学习必要的专业技能,而不是过分强调发展学术和研究能力。其次,涉及文学,理论和相关技术的课程内容应进行适当的广度和深度的更新甚至提高。此外,学生将更多地关注与实践相关的内容。第三,在研究生课程评估中,教学方法是否有效和启发性也很重要。研究生课程评估应考虑各种教学方法,积极的学生参与以及师生之间的互动。另外,强烈建议在学习评估过程中采用多种多样的方式,以进行更公平合理的评估。最后,优秀的研究生课程不应侧重于为学生提供良好的成绩或令人满意的过程。相反,它应该能够在综合知识和能力方面有效地帮助其发展。
 
通过采用两种主要的定性技术(编码和内容分析),作者能够针对优质研究生课程的特征和相似结果的频率识别不同的观点。本文还介绍了五个树节点(这是课程的五个主要方面)和十六个子节点(这是受访者提出的特征)的概念。此外,所有统计结果均经过分析,并合并到一个简单的表格中,以便清晰呈现。此外,在主要发现部分中,使用字幕格式列出了主要发现并进行了突出显示。
 
为了评估该定性研究及其主要发现的可信度,对相关文献的综述,使用的研究方法和应用的分析方法进行了严格的讨论。一方面,本文的许多要点使它的主要发现在一定程度上值得信赖。首先,在方法部分,作者提供了有关所选学生样本,关键访谈问题,受访者及其行为方式以及分析访谈内容的方法的足够信息。有了这些详细描述的研究方法并详细解释了访谈结果的分析方式,其他研究人员就有可能使用相同的方法重复研究。这意味着本文的主要发现可以应用于其他背景和人群。其次,本文的所有发现都是在访谈中直接得出的,并得到了学生参与者的直接引用。作者不仅清楚地列出了主要发现,而且还试图理解态度的原因。例如,当得出一个结论,即学生更喜欢课程目标时,他们更倾向于以就业为导向,那么一个参与者自己的话“研究生”已经具有判断和制定未来计划的能力。因此,他们在乎……。”在论文中被引用(Zhao,Ma&Qiao,2017年,第53页)。这使得发现更加可信。第三,这些关键发现的高度可信性还源于研究过程的内部一致性。例如,面试问题与调查结果高度一致。通过将研究问题,收集的数据以及定性分析过程与最终发现联系在一起,可以提高读者对关键发现的信任度。最后但并非最不重要的一点是,面试官由六名在进行面试之前接受过相关培训的研究生组成,这使他们能够以较少的偏见和高质量进行面试。从访谈中收集的数据可能更加可信。此外,在抽样方面,30名参与者是经过全面合理考虑后从不同部门和学科选出的研究生。因此,在一定程度上,样本具有代表性,其发现对研究生课程评估有效。

The key findings are summarized as below. First of all, graduate students would prefer employment-oriented curriculum in order to learn necessary professional skills for future jobs and long-term, instead of overemphasizing on developing the academic and research capability. Secondly, the curriculum contents, involving literature, theory and related technology, should be updated or even advanced, along with appropriate breadth and depth. Also, students would pay more attention to contents linked with practice. Thirdly, whether the teaching approach is effective and inspiring or not is also important in graduate curriculum evaluation. Varied teaching approaches, active student engagement, and interaction between teachers and students should be taken into consideration for graduate curriculum evaluation. Additionally, applying various and diversified ways in the learning evaluation process is highly recommended to conduct a more fair and reasonable evaluation. And lastly, an excellent graduate curriculum shouldn’t be focusing on providing students with good outcomes or a satisfied process. Instead, it should be able to effectively help with their development in terms of comprehensive knowledge and capacities.
 
By adopting two main qualitative techniques, coding and content analysis, the authors were able to identify different opinions about the characteristics of an excellent graduate curriculum and the frequency of similar results. This article also introduced the concept of five tree nodes which were the five main aspects of the curriculum, and sixteen child nodes which were the characteristics raised by the interviewees. In addition, all the statistic results were analyzed and combined into a simple table in order to have a clear presentation. In addition, the key findings were listed and highlighted by using the format of subtitles in the section of Main findings.
 
With the intention of evaluating the trustworthiness of this qualitative research and its key findings, the review of related literature, used research methods, and applied analysis approach are critically discussed. On the one hand, there are many great points from this article that makes its key findings trustworthy at a certain level. First of all, in the methods part, the authors provided with adequate information about selected student samples, key interview questions, interviewees and their conduction approach, and method of analyzing the interview contents. With these detailed described research methods and detailed explained how the interview results were analyzed, it would be possible for other researchers to repeat the study using the same methodology. And this means that the key findings of this article can be applied to other contexts and populations. Secondly, all the findings in this paper were drawn directing from the interviews with the supports of direct quotes from the student participants. Not only did the authors list the key findings clearly, but also did they try to understand the reasons for their attitudes. For example, when drawing the conclusion that students prefer the curriculum objective to be more employment-orientated, one participant’s own word ‘Graduate students have obtained the ability to judge and make future plans. Therefore, they care about….’ was quoted in the paper (Zhao, Ma & Qiao, 2017, p. 53). And this makes the findings more credible. Thirdly, the high credibility of these key findings also comes from the internal consistency of the research process. For example, the interview questions were highly consistent with the findings. By tying together the research questions, collected data, and the process of qualitative analysis with the final findings, it increases readers’ intention to trust the key findings more. Last but not least, the interviewers were made up with six graduate students who have related training before conducted the interviews, which enabled them to do the interviews with less bias and high quality. The data collected from the interviews can be more credible. Also, in terms of sampling, the 30 participants were graduate students selected from different departments and disciplines after thorough and reasonable considerations. Therefore, in a certain way, the samples were representative and the findings were valid for the graduate curriculum evaluation.

但是,另一方面,由于研究方法的局限性,关键发现的可信度存在一些不足。首先,入选的样本都是在校学习成绩优异的研究生。他们可能无法代表整个研究生群体,因为优秀学生只占整个研究生群体的一小部分。因此,研究生课程设计的关键发现可能不是那么准确,因为它们是基于少量且缺乏代表性的缺乏多样性的案例。此外,当使用半结构化访谈作为研究方法时,始终会存在数据质量问题的风险。没有明确的陈述和访谈记录,数据的可靠性存在一些不确定性。例如,访调员是否使用引导词或手势以及他们如何提问是非常重要的。因为在面试过程中存在偏见时,获得的数据的可靠性降低了。最后,本研究中未使用三角剖分方法,这也可以视为一种限制。本研究仅使用一种研究方法(半结构化访谈)来收集数据。在分析过程中,作者使用了学生对研究生课程偏好设置的频率。但是,只有30个回复。尽管该研究对研究生课程评估有一些非常有用的有见地的发现,但这些发现可能是完全准确的。而且,没有将结果与现有的相关研究进行仔细检查,以提高关键结论的可靠性。
 
总而言之,尽管本文的主要发现存在某些局限性,但由于研究过程的可重复性和一致性,它们在某些级别仍然是可信赖的和有效的。本文的发现可以看作是一次有见地的扩展探索,并有助于对研究生课程评估的研究领域做出贡献。在讨论和建议部分中,本文试图通过与各种现有文献相关和比较来讨论和提出在未来方面进行评估的内容。
 
同样,一些关键发现对于我的研究领域,教育也可能具有适用的意义。越来越多的人关注如何在世界范围内确保或改善教育质量。数十年来,专家和教育工作者一直在争论该怎么做。本文的研究结果可以帮助建立教育质量管理框架。更具体地说,在进行教育质量管理时,重要的是要考虑到学生的观点,因为不同的利益相关者,例如老师,学生,管理者,对于如何提高教育质量会有不同的看法。
 
此外,本文的主要发现之一表明教育课程的内容应进行更新和实用。这也可以应用于教育学科,例如,教师不应该只专注于教书中的基本学术知识。相反,他们应着眼于为学生准备具有实际能力的现实任务和未来发展。这些发现还为应该采用何种教学方法以提高教育质量提供有用的见解。教育质量不仅关系到良好的结果,而且关系到过程的有效性。应该采用多种评估学生学习成果的方法。应鼓励师生互动,使学生参与进来,并导致对知识的更全面理解。此外,教育者和教师应不时进行自我评估,以制定更有效的教学计划并改善教学方法。

However, on the other hand, there are some weaknesses of the trustworthiness on the key findings due to the limitation of research methods. First of all, the selected samples were all graduate students who had the excellent academic performance at school. They might not be able to represent the whole population of graduate students in question because excellent students only account for a small percentage of the whole group. Therefore, the key findings of graduate curriculum design might not be so accurate because they were based on a small and unrepresentative number of cases which lack diversity. In addition, when using semi-structured interviews as the research method, there would always be risks of data quality issues. Without clear statement and record of the interviews, there are some uncertainties about the reliability regarding the data. For example, whether the interviewers use any leading words or gestures and how they approach questioning are significantly important. Because when there is a bias among the interviewing process, the reliability of the data obtained decreases. And finally, there is no triangulation method used in this study, and this can also be considered as a limitation. Only one research method, semi-structured interviews, was used in this research to collect data. During the analysis, the authors used the frequency of the preferred character of graduate curriculums by students. However, there were only 30 responses. Although the research had some very useful insightful findings on graduate curriculum evaluation, the findings might be totally accurate. Also, the results were not compared double-checked with existing relevant studies to increase the reliability of the key findings.
 
In summary, even though there are some limitations regards to the key findings of this article, they are still trustworthy and valid at certain levels due to the repeatable of the research process and consistency. The findings of this paper can be viewed as an insightful extended explorations and help contribute to the research area of the graduate curriculum evaluation. In the discussion and suggestion part, this article tried to discuss and propose what to evaluate in the future aspects by relating and comparing to various existing literature.
 
Also, some of the key findings can also have applicable meanings for my field of study, education. There has been raising the amount of concerns about how to ensure or improve education quality around the world. Experts and educators have been arguing what to do for decades. And the findings from this article can help to build a framework of education quality management. To be more specific, when conducting education quality management, it is important to take the students’ point of view into consideration, because different stakeholders, such as teachers, students, administrators, would have different opinions on how to improve education quality.
 
What’s more, one of the key findings in this paper suggests the contents of education curriculum be updated and practical. This can also be applied to the discipline of education, for example, teachers should not just focusing on teaching students basic academic knowledge from the book. Instead, they should aim for preparing the students for real-life tasks and future development with essential capabilities. These findings also provide helpful insights regards to what teaching and learning approaches should be in order to improve education quality. Education quality is not only about good outcomes, but also the effectiveness of the process. Multiple ways of evaluating students’ learning outcomes should be applied. Teacher-student interactions should be encouraged to get students involved and lead to a more comprehensive understanding of knowledge. Also, educators and teachers should keep evaluating themselves from time to time to form more effective teaching plans and improve their teaching approaches.
 
 
Article info:
Decheng, Zhao., Xiaorong, Ma., & Shanbin, Qiao., (2017). What aspects should be evaluated when evaluating graduate curriculum: Analysis based on student interview. Studies in Educational Evaluation, Vol. 54, p. 50-57. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.11.003
 
References:
 
Pan, W. L. (2004). The study of China graduate education quality evaluation system Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Shanghai: East China University. In Chinese.

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